在单词的开头添加前缀以改变其含义：dis-trust, im-mature, counter-productive。在词尾添加后缀以改变其形式：wonder-ful、improv-ment、adapt-able。了解如何使用英语前缀后缀将帮助您扩大词汇量！
前缀和后缀统称为“词缀”。有些单词既有前缀又有后缀，例如：前缀 + 词根 +后缀 un-comfort-able
|counter-||opposite/ opposed to||counterproductive|
|de-||something is removed or reduced||de-activate|
|deca-||ten times a unit||decathlon|
|kilo-||one thousand times a unit||kilometre|
|mega-||one million times a unit||megabyte|
|giga-||one billion units||gigawatt|
|deci-||one tenth of a unit||decilitre|
|centi-||one hundredth of a unit||centimetre|
|milli-||one thousandth of a unit||millimetre|
|micro-||one millionth of a unit (also means extremely small)||micro-organism|
|able / -ible||adorable|
|-ance / -ence||endurance|
|-ant / -ent||pleasant|
|-ian||Canadian||-er / -or||painter|
|Adverb suffixes||Examples||Verb suffixes||Examples|
对于大多数以单个辅音结尾的短词，在添加后缀时将辅音双写，例如big/bigger。对于以 ‘-l’ 结尾的较长单词，您还应该将辅音双写，例如travel变为trave ll er。许多动词也遵循这个规则，例如mode lling。
对于以“-e”结尾的单词，当添加以元音开头的后缀时，通常会删除最后的“e”。示例包括：evolv e /evolving和irritat e /irritable。有时保留“e”以帮助发音，例如，在单词knowledge eable中。
同样的拼写模式出现在manageable和change eable中。有些单词有两种替代拼写。例如 loveable 和lovable都是正确的拼写。以ee、oe和ye结尾的词在添加后缀时不会去掉“e”。例子包括seeing 和canoeing 划独木舟。
一个例子是前缀以单词开头的相同字母结尾。例如c o –和owner。 添加不带连字符的co-可能会改变单词的发音并使意思难以理解。因此co-owner比coowner更清楚。
antiseptic, anti-climax, antifreeze, antibiotic, antibody, anticlockwise许多感染可以用抗生素治疗。
The atheletes ran around the track in an anticlockwise direction.
Many infections can be treated with antibiotics.
counterpart, counterproductive, counterclaim
Putting too much pressure on young people can be counterproductive.
deteriorate, derail, deactivate
The discussion deteriorated into an argument.
dissatisfied, disappointed, disloyal, disobedient, disruptive, distrust
Jane never did what she was told. She was a disobedient child.
Rob was disappointed when he didn’t get the job.
ex-wife, ex-teacher, ex-husband, ex-policeman
I still meet my ex-husband sometimes.
No, he wasn’t a teacher before. He’s an ex-policeman.
extracurricular, extracellular, extraordinary
Her journey across the world was extraordinary.
forewarn, foreground, forefathers, forecast, forego, forefront
This robotics company is at the forefront of modern technology.
The weather forecast for tomorrow is good.
homogeneous, homophone, homosexual
Air is a homogeneous mixture.
hypersensitive, hyperlink, hyper-intelligent
A hyperlink connects one page to another.
illogical, illegal, illiterate, illuminate
Driving under the age of 17 is illegal in the UK.
immature, immaterial, immediately, immense, impersonal, impatient
You need to speak to the headteacher immediately.
Jamie looks sensible but he is actually quite immature.
inevitable, incorrect, indifferent, indoors, ineffective, insincere
The examiner told me that some of my answers were incorrect.
Unfortunately, the cancer medicine was ineffective.
international, intermediate, interpreter, interval, interfere, interest
My husband is working for an international company.
Maggie decided not to be a teacher; she is training to be an interpreter.
irresponsible, irrational, irregular, irrelevant
Irregular verbs are difficult to learn!
malpractice, malfunction, malnourished, malnutrition
I couldn’t complete the work because laser cutting machine malfunctioned.
mid-July, midweek, mid-September, mid-sentence
I’m going to go out for a walk midweek.
misunderstanding, mistrust, misuse, misspell, misrepresent, mispronounce
We didn’t fall out – it was just a misunderstanding.
The newspaper report misrepresented what I said!
monorail, monotone, monochrome, monotonous, monosyllable, monopoly
That song has a boring tune; it’s monotonous.
A monorail has just one rail.
neonatal, neoclassical, Neolithic
Yes, that museum is a neoclassical building.
Non- (note the prefix ‘non’ is usually used with a hyphen)
non-event, non-stop, non-smoking, non-alcoholic, non-member, non-resident
Sorry, this is a non-smoking building.
Non-residents are welcome in the restaurant.
An omnivore eats plants and animals.
outbreak, outgrow, outrun, outweigh, outbuilding, outspoken
He has outgrown all his baby clothes now.
Overall, the advantages outweigh the disadvantages.
pre-war, pre-recorded, pre-pay, pre-set, pre-tax
She has a pre-recorded message on her phone.
You can pre-pay for your dental treatment.
replay, rerun, re-record, re-write
She had to re-write her essay to get a higher grade.
The football match last weekend was a replay.
semicircle, semi-darkness, semi-detached, semi-literate, semi-professional
They left the restaurant in semi-darkness.
Mary is a great tennis player. She is semi-professional.
subtropical, subsection, sub-zero, subnormal, subsoil
They had to cope with sub-zero temperatures.
Much of North Africa has a sub-tropical climate.
supermarket, supernatural, super-tanker, super-rich, supervisor
Supermarkets have a greater range of products than local shops.
John has been my supervisor for the past year.
unbelievable, unkind, unusual, unable, uncomfortable, uncanny
My new shoes are uncomfortable.
That film was unbelievable!
underplay, underwear, under-valued, under-rated, under-paid
He was an under-rated actor.
I’m not selling that vase. I think it has been under-valued.
unbelievable, comfortable, washable, likeable, knowledgeable, fashionable (adjectives)
Do you prefer fashionable or comfortable clothes?
Professor Smith is very knowledgeable about insects.
performance, allowance, disturbance, appearance, brilliance (nouns)
Tom is given a weekly allowance by his parents.
The police were called to a disturbance in the street.
pleasant, brilliant, disinfectant, servant, assistant, (nouns and adjectives)
We had a brilliant holiday in Spain.
He decided to employ an assistant.
activate, affectionate, regulate, electorate, mediate, fortunate (nouns and adjectives)
You can activate your PayPal account now.
His dog is well-behaved and affectionate.
freedom, kingdom, boredom (nouns)
Freedom of choice means you have more opportunity to make decisions.
presence, existence, occurrence, permanence (nouns)
I could feel a ghostly presence when I went into the room!
Most people dispute the existence of ghosts.
different, resident, president (nouns and adjectives)
She has been a resident in this area for many years.
carpenter, painter, hotter, bigger, diner, photographer (nouns and adjectives)
He is training to be a painter.
She would love to be a photographer.
bravery, machinery, bakery, flattery (nouns)
You can buy bread at the bakery.
The fireman was praised for his bravery.
beautiful, wonderful, colourful, eventful, restful, careful (adjectives)
It was an eventful day.
I hope you have a wonderful holiday!
neighbourhood, childhood, priesthood (nouns)
This is a very quiet neighbourhood.
terrible, horrible, visible, edible (adjectives)
Is that plant edible?
Our house is visible from the road.
photographic, alcoholic, supersonic (adjectives)
SpaceX is planning to launch a supersonic plane.
The local pub serves alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks.
historical, identical, satirical (adjectives)
John and Steve are identical twins.
decision, promotion, completion, election, exhaustion, deception (nouns)
The results of the election will be announced tomorrow.
She made an important decision today.
Cubism, socialism, criticism, heroism (nouns)
Cubism was one of the most influential art movements of the twentieth century.
childish, selfish, reddish, snobbish, Spanish, English (adjectives)
She looks grown-up but she is a little childish.
He has reddish hair.
socialist, novelist, guitarist, pianist, sexist, racist
She is a brilliant guitarist.
Sexism and racism are not to be tolerated in schools.
creativity, popularity, regularity, sexuality, eventuality, familiarity (nouns)
Her strength is her creativity.
Jenny carefully planned her trip to allow for any eventuality.
creative, positive, negative, transitive, explosive, detective (nouns and adjectives)
My brother-in-law is working as a private detective.
My mother is a creative person.
careless, ruthless, pointless, meaningless, tasteless, powerless (adjectives)
It was a careless mistake.
Sorry, but this soup is tasteless.
permanent, government, employment, arrangement, management (nouns and adjectives)
She is really pleased that she now has a permanent job.
Have you got any management experience?
shyness, loudness, sadness, loneliness (nouns)
He had to try hard to overcome his shyness.
Loneliness can be a big problem for older people.
adventurous, pretentious, cautious, dangerous, spacious (adjectives)
Her new flat is very spacious.
She is really adventurous. She often travels to faraway places.
friendship, hardship, fellowship, premiership, citizenship (nouns)
He has kept his friendship with Tony going for 20 years.
They suffered a lot of hardship when they first arrived in the country.
troublesome, bothersome, loathsome (adjectives)
Wasps can be troublesome in late summer.
closure, fracture, measure, exposure, failure (nouns)
He said the marriage broke down due to a failure to communicate openly.
She was disappointed about the closure of the business.
funny, scary, wintry, feathery, scaly, messy
My room is always messy!
It was a beautiful wintry scene on Christmas Day.