英语前缀后缀 1

英语前缀后缀总表大全英语含义及讲解

在单词的开头添加前缀以改变其含义:dis-trust, im-mature, counter-productive。在词尾添加后缀以改变其形式:wonder-ful、improv-ment、adapt-able。了解如何使用英语前缀后缀将帮助您扩大词汇量!

上文介绍了57条常用英语谚语,在本学习指南中,您将了解英语中常见的前缀和后缀。您将发现这些如何改变单词的含义和形式。给出的示例向您展示了如何使用这些前缀和后缀。

前缀和后缀统称为“词缀”。有些单词既有前缀又有后缀,例如:前缀 + 词根 +后缀 un-comfort-able

了解单词是如何使用前缀和后缀构成的,可以帮助您理解单词的含义并理解困难的拼写。

adv 1

前缀Prefixes是什么意思和用途

最常用的前缀是将具有肯定含义的形容词变为具有否定或相反含义的形容词,例如:uncomfortable。将单词更改为否定含义的前缀包括:in-、ir-、im-和dis-。使用这种前缀形成的例子有:in active、irregular、impossible和dishonest。

前缀Prefix含义Meaning例子Example
anti-opposed/to preventantidote
counter-opposite/ opposed tocounterproductive
de-something is removed or reducedde-activate
dis-negative/oppositedisadvantage
ex-formerex-wife
extra-outside/beyondextra-curricular
fore-beforeforewarn
homo-samehomosexual
hyper-very/extremelyhyper-sensitive
il-negative/oppositeillogical
im-negative/oppositeimmature
in-negative/oppositeinexpensive
inter-betweeninternational
ir-negative/oppositeirregular
mal-bad/wrongmalpractice
mid-middlemidwinter
mis-bad/wrongmisplace
mono-onemonorail
neo-newneoclassical
non-notnondescript
omni-allomnivore
out-outside/beyond/biggeroutweigh
pre-beforepre-date
re-againre-arrange
semi-halfsemicircle
sub-undersubmerge
super-bigger/more powerfulsuperhero
un-negative/oppositeunbelievable
under-beneath/not enoughunderplay

某些前缀组具有非常特定的含义和用途。下表总结了公制度量的最常见前缀,描述单位倍数的前缀和表示单位分数的前缀。

前缀Prefix含义Meaning例子Example
deca-ten times a unitdecathlon
kilo-one thousand times a unitkilometre
mega-one million times a unitmegabyte
giga-one billion unitsgigawatt
deci-one tenth of a unitdecilitre
centi-one hundredth of a unitcentimetre
milli-one thousandth of a unitmillimetre
micro-one millionth of a unit (also means extremely small)micro-organism

后缀是什么意思-常用后缀有哪些

后缀使词根可以以不同的方式变化,以形成不同的词性。例如,词根“create”可以修改为creation (名词)、creative(形容词)和creatively(副词)。不同类别的词(名词、动词、形容词)有自己共同的后缀。

常用形容词后缀Example常用名称后缀Example
able / -ibleadorable
terrible
-ance / -enceendurance
conscience
-ant / -entpleasant
confident
-ant
contestant
-atepassionate-domfreedom
-fulwonderful-eeemployee
-ianCanadian-er / -orpainter
conductor
-icenergetic-eryscenery
-icalmethodical-hoodneighbourhood
-ishselfish-ionelection
-ivepositive-ismsocialism
-lesspointless-istnovelist
-likebusiness-like-ity
regularity
-ousadventurous-ment
improvement
-somewearisome-nesssadness
-ynoisy-shipfriendship
-ureclosure

副词后缀

Adverb suffixesExamplesVerb suffixesExamples
-lyquickly-eneaten
wiseclockwise-iseenergise
wardnorthward -atealternate
英语前缀后缀

拼写规则和词族

后缀拼写规则

以下规则适用于英式英语拼写。另请参阅下面有关美国拼写规则的部分。

对于大多数以单个辅音结尾的短词,在添加后缀时将辅音双写,例如big/bigger。对于以 ‘-l’ 结尾的较长单词,您还应该将辅音双写,例如travel变为trave ll er。许多动词也遵循这个规则,例如mode lling

对于以“-e”结尾的单词,当添加以元音开头的后缀时,通常会删除最后的“e”。示例包括:evolv e /evolvingirritat e /irritable有时保留“e”以帮助发音,例如,在单词knowledge eable中。

同样的拼写模式出现在manageablechange eable中。有些单词有两种替代拼写。例如 loveablelovable都是正确的拼写以eeoeye结尾的词在添加后缀时不会去掉“e”。例子包括seeingcanoeing 划独木舟。

美式拼写

英式英语和美式英语在拼写上存在一些差异。以下是一些常见的差异:

美式英语英式英语
analyzeanalyse
traveled/travelingtravelled/travelling
defensedefence
civilizationcivilisation
centercentre
humorhumour
dialogdialogue

词族Word families

“Word families”是一组词,其中不同的后缀已添加到相同的词根。学习英语中的了解所有词族是非常困难的,但是知道一些常见的词族可以帮助您学习拼写模式和常见的前缀和后缀含义。

英语考试通常要求学生通过添加适当的前缀和后缀来“转换”单词。因此,熟悉前缀和后缀可以帮助您提高考试技巧和词汇量。

以下词族演示了如何转换词根以创建具有相似含义的不同形式。

动词名词形容词副词
succeedsuccesssuccessful
successfully
specialisespecialismspecialespecially
attractattractionattractiveattractively
surprisesurprisesurprisingsurprisingly

连字符Hyphen 还是没有连字符?

在将前缀添加到单词的大多数情况下,不使用连字符 (-)。但是,在某些情况下可以使用连字符来使单词的含义更清晰并避免混淆。

一个例子是前缀以单词开头的相同字母结尾。例如o –owner 添加不带连字符的co-可能会改变单词的发音并使意思难以理解。因此co-ownercoowner更清楚。

当单词有两种含义时,也会发生混淆。例如,remark是口头评论,但re-mark意味着再次标记/评估考试。在这种情况下使用连字符可以避免混淆。

连字符通常与专有名词前的前缀一起使用。例子包括:un-American 和anti-British。最后,前缀ex-self-co-通常与连字符一起使用。

英语前缀后缀大全

下面的列表总结了常用的英语前缀和后缀。还提供了例句以帮助您在上下文中理解它们。

前缀有哪些

Anti-反对

antiseptic, anti-climax, antifreeze, antibiotic, antibody, anticlockwise许多感染可以用抗生素治疗。
The atheletes ran around the track in an anticlockwise direction.
Many infections can be treated with antibiotics.

Counter-

counterpart, counterproductive, counterclaim
Putting too much pressure on young people can be counterproductive.

De-

deteriorate, derail, deactivate
The discussion deteriorated into an argument.

Dis-

dissatisfied, disappointed, disloyal, disobedient, disruptive, distrust
Jane never did what she was told. She was a disobedient child.
Rob was disappointed when he didn’t get the job.

Ex-

ex-wife, ex-teacher, ex-husband, ex-policeman
I still meet my ex-husband sometimes.
No, he wasn’t a teacher before. He’s an ex-policeman.

Extra-

extracurricular, extracellular, extraordinary
Her journey across the world was extraordinary.

Fore-

forewarn, foreground, forefathers, forecast, forego, forefront
This robotics company is at the forefront of modern technology.
The weather forecast for tomorrow is good.

Homo-

homogeneous, homophone, homosexual
Air is a homogeneous mixture.

Hyper-

hypersensitive, hyperlink, hyper-intelligent
hyperlink connects one page to another.

Il-

illogical, illegal, illiterate, illuminate
Driving under the age of 17 is illegal in the UK.

Im-

immature, immaterial, immediately, immense, impersonal, impatient
You need to speak to the headteacher immediately.
Jamie looks sensible but he is actually quite immature.

In-

inevitable, incorrect, indifferent, indoors, ineffective, insincere
The examiner told me that some of my answers were incorrect.
Unfortunately, the cancer medicine was ineffective.

Inter-

international, intermediate, interpreter, interval, interfere, interest
My husband is working for an international company.
Maggie decided not to be a teacher; she is training to be an interpreter.

Ir-

irresponsible, irrational, irregular, irrelevant
Irregular verbs are difficult to learn!

Mal-

malpractice, malfunction, malnourished, malnutrition
I couldn’t complete the work because laser cutting machine malfunctioned. 

Mid-

mid-July, midweek, mid-September, mid-sentence
I’m going to go out for a walk midweek. 

Mis-

misunderstanding, mistrust, misuse, misspell, misrepresent, mispronounce
We didn’t fall out – it was just a misunderstanding.
The newspaper report misrepresented what I said! 

Mono-

monorail, monotone, monochrome, monotonous, monosyllable, monopoly
That song has a boring tune; it’s monotonous.
monorail has just one rail. 

Neo-

neonatal, neoclassical, Neolithic
Yes, that museum is a neoclassical building.

Non- (note the prefix ‘non’ is usually used with a hyphen)

non-event, non-stop, non-smoking, non-alcoholic, non-member, non-resident
Sorry, this is a non-smoking building.
Non-residents are welcome in the restaurant.

Omni-

omnivore, omnipresent
An omnivore eats plants and animals. 

Out-

outbreak, outgrow, outrun, outweigh, outbuilding, outspoken
He has outgrown all his baby clothes now.
Overall, the advantages outweigh the disadvantages.

Pre-

pre-war, pre-recorded, pre-pay, pre-set, pre-tax
She has a pre-recorded message on her phone.
You can pre-pay for your dental treatment.

Re-

replay, rerun, re-record, re-write
She had to re-write her essay to get a higher grade.
The football match last weekend was a replay.

Semi-

semicircle, semi-darkness, semi-detached, semi-literate, semi-professional
They left the restaurant in semi-darkness.
Mary is a great tennis player. She is semi-professional.

Sub-

subtropical, subsection, sub-zero, subnormal, subsoil
They had to cope with sub-zero temperatures.
Much of North Africa has a sub-tropical climate.

Super-

supermarket, supernatural, super-tanker, super-rich, supervisor
Supermarkets have a greater range of products than local shops.
John has been my supervisor for the past year.

Un-

unbelievable, unkind, unusual, unable, uncomfortable, uncanny
My new shoes are uncomfortable.
That film was unbelievable!

Under-

underplay, underwear, under-valued, under-rated, under-paid
He was an under-rated actor.
I’m not selling that vase. I think it has been under-valued.

后缀有哪些

-able

unbelievable, comfortable, washable, likeable, knowledgeable, fashionable (adjectives)
Do you prefer fashionable or comfortable clothes?
Professor Smith is very knowledgeable about insects.

-ance

performance, allowance, disturbance, appearance, brilliance (nouns)
Tom is given a weekly allowance by his parents.
The police were called to a disturbance in the street.

-ant

pleasant, brilliant, disinfectant, servant, assistant, (nouns and adjectives)
We had a brilliant holiday in Spain.
He decided to employ an assistant.

-ate

activate, affectionate, regulate, electorate, mediate, fortunate (nouns and adjectives)
You can activate your PayPal account now.
His dog is well-behaved and affectionate.

-dom

freedom, kingdom, boredom (nouns)
Freedom of choice means you have more opportunity to make decisions.

-ence

presence, existence, occurrence, permanence (nouns)
I could feel a ghostly presence when I went into the room!
Most people dispute the existence of ghosts.

-ent

different, resident, president (nouns and adjectives)
She has been a resident in this area for many years.

-er

carpenter, painter, hotter, bigger, diner, photographer (nouns and adjectives)
He is training to be a painter.
She would love to be a photographer.

-ery

bravery, machinery, bakery, flattery (nouns)
You can buy bread at the bakery.
The fireman was praised for his bravery.

-ful

beautiful, wonderful, colourful, eventful, restful, careful (adjectives)
It was an eventful day.
I hope you have a wonderful holiday!

-hood

neighbourhood, childhood, priesthood (nouns)
This is a very quiet neighbourhood.

-ible

terrible, horrible, visible, edible (adjectives)
Is that plant edible?
Our house is visible from the road.

-ic

photographic, alcoholic, supersonic (adjectives)
SpaceX is planning to launch a supersonic plane.
The local pub serves alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks.

-ical

historical, identical, satirical (adjectives)
John and Steve are identical twins.

-ion

decision, promotion, completion, election, exhaustion, deception (nouns)
The results of the election will be announced tomorrow.
She made an important decision today.

-ism

Cubism, socialism, criticism, heroism (nouns)
Cubism was one of the most influential art movements of the twentieth century.

-ish

childish, selfish, reddish, snobbish, Spanish, English (adjectives)
She looks grown-up but she is a little childish.
He has reddish hair.

-ist

socialist, novelist, guitarist, pianist, sexist, racist
She is a brilliant guitarist.
Sexism and racism are not to be tolerated in schools.

-ity

creativity, popularity, regularity, sexuality, eventuality, familiarity (nouns)
Her strength is her creativity.
Jenny carefully planned her trip to allow for any eventuality.

-ive

creative, positive, negative, transitive, explosive, detective (nouns and adjectives)
My brother-in-law is working as a private detective.
My mother is a creative person.

-less

careless, ruthless, pointless, meaningless, tasteless, powerless (adjectives)
It was a careless mistake.
Sorry, but this soup is tasteless.

-ment

permanent, government, employment, arrangement, management (nouns and adjectives)
She is really pleased that she now has a permanent job.
Have you got any management experience?

ness

shyness, loudness, sadness, loneliness (nouns)
He had to try hard to overcome his shyness.
Loneliness can be a big problem for older people.

-ous

adventurous, pretentious, cautious, dangerous, spacious (adjectives)
Her new flat is very spacious.
She is really adventurous. She often travels to faraway places.

-ship

friendship, hardship, fellowship, premiership, citizenship (nouns)
He has kept his friendship with Tony going for 20 years.
They suffered a lot of hardship when they first arrived in the country.

-some

troublesome, bothersome, loathsome (adjectives)
Wasps can be troublesome in late summer.

-ure

closure, fracture, measure, exposure, failure (nouns)
He said the marriage broke down due to a failure to communicate openly.
She was disappointed about the closure of the business.

-y

funny, scary, wintry, feathery, scaly, messy
My room is always messy!
It was a beautiful wintry scene on Christmas Day.

总结

英语前缀后缀是一种重要的构词法,一个英语单词可以分为三个部分:前缀(prefix),词根(stem)及后缀(suffix)。前缀,可以改变单词的意思,通过后缀常常可以判断出一个词的词性。掌握词性是掌握英语基本规律,扩大单词量的重要手段。

Scroll to Top